Advertisement

Impact of Traumatic Brain Injury on Participation in Leisure Activities

      Abstract

      Wise EK, Mathews-Dalton C, Dikmen S, Temkin N, Machamer J, Bell K, Powell JM. Impact of traumatic brain injury on participation in leisure activities.

      Objective

      To determine how participation in leisure activities for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) changes from before injury to 1 year after injury.

      Design

      Prospective evaluation of leisure participation at 1 year after TBI.

      Setting

      Level I trauma center.

      Participants

      Rehabilitation inpatients (mean age, 35.3 years; 77% male; 77% white) with moderate to severe TBI (N=160).

      Interventions

      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measure

      Functional Status Examination.

      Results

      At 1 year after injury, 81% had not returned to preinjury levels of leisure participation. Activities most frequently discontinued included partying, drug and alcohol use, and various sports. The activity most often reported as new after injury was watching television. Of the small fraction who returned to preinjury levels, 70% did so within 4 months of injury. Sixty percent of those who did not return to preinjury levels were moderately to severely bothered by the changes.

      Conclusions

      At 1 year after injury, many TBI survivors engage in a reduced number of leisure activities, which are more sedentary and less social, with a substantial fraction dissatisfied with these changes. While discontinuing some activities may be viewed as a positive change, there are few new ones to replace them.

      Key Words

      List of Abbreviations:

      FSE (Functional Status Examination), TBI (traumatic brain injury), TBIMS (Traumatic Brain Injury Model System)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Specht J.
        • King G.
        • Brown E.
        • Foris C.
        The importance of leisure in the lives of persons with congenital physical disabilities.
        Am J Occup Ther. 2002; 56: 436-445
        • Hoofien D.
        • Gilboa A.
        • Vakil E.
        • Donovick P.J.
        Traumatic brain injury (TBI) 10-20 years later: a comprehensive outcome study of psychiatric symptomatology, cognitive abilities and psychosocial functioning.
        Brain Inj. 2001; 15: 189-209
        • Kinney W.B.
        • Coyle C.P.
        Predicting life satisfaction among adults with physical disabilities.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992; 73: 863-869
        • Niemi M.L.
        • Laaksonen R.
        • Kotila M.
        • Waltimo O.
        Quality of life 4 years after stroke.
        Stroke. 1988; 19: 1101-1107
        • Riddick C.C.
        Leisure satisfaction precursors.
        J Leisure Res. 1986; 18: 259-265
        • Eriksson G.
        • Kottorp A.
        • Borg J.
        • Tham K.
        Relationship between occupational gaps in everyday life, depressive mood and life satisfaction after acquired brain injury.
        J Rehabil Med. 2009; 41: 187-194
        • Steadman-Pare D.
        • Colantonio A.
        • Ratcliff G.
        • Chase S.
        • Vernich L.
        Factors associated with perceived quality of life many years after traumatic brain injury.
        J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2001; 16: 330-342
        • Teasdale T.W.
        • Engberg A.W.
        Subjective well-being and quality of life following traumatic brain injury in adults: a long-term population-based follow-up.
        Brain Inj. 2005; 19: 1041-1048
        • Viemerö V.
        • Krause C.
        Quality of life in individuals with physical disabilities.
        Psychother Psychosom. 1998; 67: 317-322
        • Wilson B.A.
        Neuropsychological Rehabilitation.
        Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2008; 4: 141-162
        • Spreitzer E.
        • Snyder E.E.
        Educational-occupational fit and leisure orientation as related to life satisfaction.
        J Leisure Res. 1987; 19: 149-158
        • Malley D.
        • Cooper J.
        • Cope J.
        Adapting leisure activity for adults with neuropsychological deficits following acquired brain injury.
        NeuroRehabilitation. 2008; 23: 329-334
        • Reynolds F.
        Coping with chronic illness and disability through creative needlecraft.
        Br J Occup Ther. 1997; 60: 352-356
        • Taylor L.P.
        • McGruder J.E.
        The meaning of sea kayaking for persons with spinal cord injuries.
        Am J Occup Ther. 1996; 50: 39-46
        • Kleiber D.A.
        • Reel H.A.
        • Hutchinson S.L.
        When distress gives way to possibility: the relevance of leisure in adjustment to disability.
        NeuroRehabilitation. 2008; 23: 321-328
        • Koskinen S.
        Quality of life 10 years after a very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI): the perspective of the injured and the closest relative.
        Brain Inj. 1998; 12: 631-648
        • Morton M.V.
        • Wehman P.
        Psychosocial and emotional sequelae of individuals with traumatic brain injury: a literature review and recommendations.
        Brain Inj. 1995; 9: 81-92
        • Dikmen S.S.
        • Machamer J.E.
        • Powell J.M.
        • Temkin N.R.
        Outcome 3 to 5 years after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003; 84: 1449-1457
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Injury prevention & control: traumatic brain injury.
        (Accessed August 29, 2008)
        • Harrison-Felix C.
        • Whiteneck G.
        • DeVivo M.
        • Hammond F.M.
        • Jha A.
        Mortality following rehabilitation in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems of Care.
        NeuroRehabilitation. 2004; 19: 45-54
        • Institute of Medicine
        Long term consequences of traumatic brain injury.
        in: Gulf War and health. Vol 7. National Academies Pr, Washington (DC)2009: 301-331
        • Eriksson G.
        • Tham K.
        • Borg J.
        Occupational gaps in everyday life 1-4 years after acquired brain injury.
        J Rehabil Med. 2006; 38: 159-165
        • Bier N.
        • Dutil E.
        • Couture M.
        Factors affecting leisure participation after a traumatic brain injury: an exploratory study.
        J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2009; 24: 187-194
        • Dikmen S.
        • Machamer J.
        • Miller B.
        • Doctor J.
        • Temkin N.
        Functional status examination: a new instrument for assessing outcome in traumatic brain injury.
        J Neurotrauma. 2001; 18: 127-140
        • Hudak A.M.
        • Caesar R.R.
        • Frol A.B.
        • et al.
        Functional outcome scales in traumatic brain injury: a comparison of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (Extended) and the Functional Status Examination.
        Neurotrauma. 2005; 22: 1319-1326
        • Tinsley H.E.
        • Johnson T.L.
        A preliminary taxonomy of leisure activities.
        J Leisure Res. 1984; 16: 234-244
      1. Udd E, Cable TT. Speaking a common language in leisure: towards a comprehensive leisure taxonomy. BJA Smale, editor. In: Leisure challenges: Bringing people, resources, and policy into play. Proceedings of the 6th Canadian Congress on Leisure Research: 1990 May 9-12. Waterloo: Ontario Research Council on Leisure; 1990.

        • Allen L.R.
        • Buchana T.
        Techniques for comparing leisure classification systems.
        J Leisure Res. 1982; 14: 307-322
      2. Dictionary.com's 21st century lexicon, 2003-2009.
        (Accessed December 5, 2009)
      3. Cambridge dictionaries online.
        (Accessed December 5, 2009)
        • Fleiss J.L.
        Statistical methods for rates and proportions.
        2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York1981
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Trends in strength training—United States 1998-2004.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006; 55: 769-772
        • Chevan J.
        Demographic determinants of participation in strength training activities among U.S. adults.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2008; 22: 553-558
        • Marquez de la Plata C.D.
        • Hart T.
        • Hammond F.M.
        • et al.
        Impact of age on long-term recovery from traumatic brain injury.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008; 89: 896-903
        • Dikmen S.S.
        • Machamer J.E.
        • Winn H.R.
        • Temkin N.R.
        Neuropsychological outcome at 1 year post head injury.
        Neuropsychol. 1995; 9: 80-90
        • Machamer J.
        • Temkin N.
        • Fraser R.
        • Doctor J.N.
        • Dikmen S.
        Stability of employment after traumatic brain injury.
        J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2005; 11: 807-816