Validation of the Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale in Ambulatory, Symptom-Free Persons With Multiple Sclerosis


      McAuley E, Motl RW, White SM, Wójcicki TR. Validation of the Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale in ambulatory, symptom-free persons with multiple sclerosis.


      To determine the psychometric properties of the 3-factor Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale in a sample of ambulatory, symptom-free persons with multiple sclerosis (MS).


      Cross-sectional validation study.


      Midwestern university.


      Community-dwelling adults (N=242) with an established definite diagnosis of MS, as corroborated by the participant's neurologist, who were relapse free for the last 30 days and ambulatory with minimal assistance.


      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale, physical activity, self-efficacy, and physical health status. Confirmatory factor analyses using covariance modeling and correlational analyses were used to establish factorial and construct validity.


      Analyses showed excellent factorial validity for the hypothesized factor structure reflecting physical, social, and self-evaluative outcome expectations. All 3 subscales were internally consistent. Theoretically, relevant correlations between outcome expectations and self-efficacy, physical activity, and physical health status were all supported.


      The Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale appears to be a reliable and valid measure of outcome expectations for exercise in this limited sample of community-dwelling adults with MS. Further validation in clinical samples is warranted.

      Key Words

      List of Abbreviations:

      CFI (Comparative Fit Index), CI (confidence interval), EXSE (Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale), GLTEQ (Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire), LL-FDI (Late Life Function and Disability Instrument), MS (multiple sclerosis), MSSE (Multiple Sclerosis Self-Efficacy Scale), PDDS (Patient Determined Disease Steps), RMSEA (root mean square error of approximation), SF-12 (12-Item Short Form Health Survey)
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