Advertisement

The Impact of Increasing Paraspinal Muscle Activity on Stature Recovery in Asymptomatic People

      Abstract

      Healey EL, Burden AM, McEwan IM, Fowler NE. The impact of increasing paraspinal muscle activity on stature recovery in asymptomatic people.

      Objective

      To determine whether changes in stature recovery could be exhibited in an asymptomatic group through the use of functional electric stimulation (FES).

      Design

      A repeated-measures cohort study considering the effects of FES on stature recovery after a loaded walking task in a group of asymptomatic subjects. Each participant performed the 20-minute loaded walking task (at 10% of body mass) on 2 separate occasions followed by a 20-minute recovery period, once with FES and once without. Measurements of stature using a stadiometer were recorded throughout.

      Setting

      A university laboratory.

      Participants

      Eight asymptomatic male volunteers (age, 29.0±5.1y; mass, 80.7±8.4kg; height, 1.81±0.06m) with no history of chronic low back pain (LBP) were recruited through notices in the university and local communities.

      Interventions

      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Recovery of stature was assessed via stadiometry during the postexercise unloading periods.

      Results

      Each participant experienced significantly better stature recovery (percentage of stature reduction) during the control session compared with the FES session, with mean stature recoveries of 104.6%±22.9% and 56.3%±27.4%, respectively (P=.01).

      Conclusions

      Use of FES correlated with significant reductions in stature recovery. Elevating paraspinal muscle activity may increase compression on the intervertebral disks and therefore diminish the ability to recover the reduction in height caused by the loaded walking task. This investigation offers further support to the theory that the raised paraspinal muscle activity exhibited by persons with chronic LBP leads to reduced stature recovery.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Pope M.H.
        • Goh K.L.
        • Magnusson M.L.
        Spine ergonomics.
        Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2002; 4: 49-68
        • Watkins J.
        Structure and function of the musculoskeletal system.
        Human Kinetics, Champaign1999
        • Department of Health
        The prevalence of back pain in Great Britain in 1998.
        Government Statistical Service, London1999
        • Maniadakis N.
        • Gray A.
        The economic burden of back pain in the UK.
        Pain. 2000; 84: 95-103
        • Adams M.A.
        • Dolan P.
        • Hutton W.C.
        • Porter R.W.
        Diurnal changes in spinal mechanics and their clinical significance.
        J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1990; 72: 266-270
        • McGill S.M.
        • van Wijk M.J.
        • Axler C.T.
        • Gletsu M.
        Studies of spinal shrinkage to evaluate low-back loading in the workplace.
        Ergonomics. 1996; 39: 92-102
        • van Dieen J.H.
        • Toussaint H.M.
        Spinal shrinkage as a parameter of functional load.
        Spine. 1993; 18: 1504-1514
        • White A.A.
        • Panjabi M.M.
        Clinical biomechanics of the spine.
        Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia1990
        • De Puky P.
        The physiological oscillation of the length of the body.
        Acta Orthop. 1935; 6: 338-347
        • Rodacki C.
        • Fowler N.E.
        • Rodacki A.L.
        • Birch K.
        Stature loss and recovery in pregnant women with and without low back pain.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003; 84: 507-512
        • Beynon C.
        • Reilly T.
        Spinal shrinkage during a seated break and standing break during simulated nursing tasks.
        Appl Ergon. 2001; 32: 617-622
        • Healey E.L.
        • Fowler N.E.
        • Burden A.M.
        • McEwan I.
        Raised paraspinal following loaded exercise in individuals with chronic low back pain.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005; 86: 710-715
        • Rodacki C.
        • Fowler N.E.
        • Rodacki A.L.
        • Birch K.
        Technical note: repeatability of measurement in determining stature in sitting and standing postures.
        Ergonomics. 2001; 44: 1076-1085
        • Corlett E.N.
        • Eklund J.A.
        • Reilly T.
        • Troup J.D.
        Assessment of workload from measurements of stature.
        Appl Ergon. 1987; 18: 65-71
        • Gibson J.N.
        • Smith K.
        • Rennie M.J.
        Prevention of disuse muscle atrophy by means of electrical stimulation: maintenance of protein synthesis.
        Lancet. 1988; 2: 767-769
        • Glaser J.A.
        • Baltz M.A.
        • Nietert P.J.
        • Bensen C.V.
        Electrical muscle stimulation as an adjunct to exercise therapy in the treatment of nonacute low back pain: a randomised control trial.
        J Pain. 2001; 2: 295-300
        • Wheeler A.H.
        • Tucker C.L.
        Electrical muscle stimulation: portable electrotherapy for neck and low back pain: patient satisfaction and self-care.
        Am J Pain Manag. 1997; 7: 92-97
        • McQuain M.T.
        • Sinaki M.
        • Shibley L.D.
        • Wahner H.W.
        • Ilstrup D.M.
        Effect of electrical stimulation on lumbar paraspinal muscles.
        Spine. 1993; 13: 1787-1792
        • Kanlayanaphotporn R.
        • Trott P.
        • Williams M.
        • Fulton I.
        Effects of chronic low back pain, age and gender on vertical spinal creep.
        Ergonomics. 2003; 46: 561-573
        • Reilly T.
        • Boocock M.G.
        • Garbutt G.
        • Troup J.D.
        Shrinkage in total body length: Its measurement and application.
        Humanbiol Budap. 1988; 18: 183-191
        • Foreman T.K.
        • Linge K.
        The importance of heel compression in the measurement of diurnal stature variation.
        Appl Ergon. 1989; 20: 299-300
        • Winslow J.
        • Jacobs P.L.
        • Tepavac D.
        Fatigue compensation during FES using surface EMG.
        J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2003; 13: 555-568
        • Field A.
        Discovering statistics: using SPSS for windows.
        Sage, London2000
        • Kanlayanaphotporn R.
        • Williams M.
        • Fulton I.
        • Trott P.
        Reliability of the vertical spinal creep response measured in sitting (asymptomatic and low-back pain subjects).
        Ergonomics. 2002; 45: 240-247
        • Marras W.S.
        • Davis K.G.
        • Ferguson S.A.
        • Lucas B.R.
        • Gupta P.
        Spine loading characteristics of patients with low back pain compared with asymptomatic individuals.
        Spine. 2001; 26: 2566-2574
        • Virgin W.J.
        Experimental investigations into the physical properties of the intervertebral disc.
        J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1951; 33: 607-611
        • Adams M.A.
        • Bogduk N.
        • Burton K.
        The biomechanics of back pain.
        Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh2002
        • Adams M.A.
        • Dolan P.
        Recent advances in lumbar spinal mechanics and their clinical significance.
        Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 1995; 10: 3-19
        • Adams M.A.
        • Hutton W.C.
        The effect of posture on the role of the apophyseal joints in resisting intervertebral compressive forces.
        J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1980; 62: 358-362
        • Muraoka Y.
        Development of an EMG recording device from stimulation electrodes for FES.
        Front Med Biol Eng. 2002; 11: 323-333