Community integration and satisfaction with functioning after intensive cognitive rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury1


      Cicerone KD, Mott T, Azulay J, Friel JC. Community integration and satisfaction with functioning after intensive cognitive rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:943–50.


      To evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive cognitive rehabilitation program (ICRP) compared with standard neurorehabilitation (SRP) for persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI).


      Nonrandomized controlled intervention trial.


      Community-based, postacute outpatient brain injury rehabilitation program.


      Fifty-six persons with TBI.


      Participants in ICRP (n=27) received an intensive, highly structured program of integrated cognitive and psychosocial interventions based on principles of holistic neuropsychologic rehabilitation. Participants in SRP (n=29) received comprehensive neurorehabilitation consisting primarily of physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and neuropsychologic treatment. Duration of treatment was approximately 4 months for both interventions.

      Main outcome measures

      Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ); and Quality of Community Integration Questionnaire assessing satisfaction with community functioning and satisfaction with cognitive functioning. Neuropsychologic functioning was evaluated for the ICRP participants.


      Both groups showed significant improvement on the CIQ, with the ICRP group exhibiting a significant treatment effect compared with the SRP group. Analysis of clinically significant improvement indicated that ICRP participants were over twice as likely to show clinical benefit on the CIQ (odds ratio=2.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.8–7.2). ICRP participants showed significant improvement in overall neuropsychologic functioning; participants with clinically significant improvement on the CIQ also showed greater improvement of neuropsychologic functioning. Satisfaction with community functioning was not related to community integration after treatment. Satisfaction with cognitive functioning made a significant contribution to posttreatment community integration; this finding may reflect the mediating effects of perceived self-efficacy on functional outcome.


      Intensive, holistic, cognitive rehabilitation is an effective form of rehabilitation, particularly for persons with TBI who have previously been unable to resume community functioning. Perceived self-efficacy may have significant impact on functional outcomes after TBI rehabilitation. Measures of social participation and subjective well-being appear to represent distinct and separable rehabilitation outcomes after TBI.


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