Advertisement
Article| Volume 85, ISSUE 3, P439-443, March 2004

The influence of footwear on timed balance scores of the modified clinical test of sensory interaction and balance 1

      Abstract

      Whitney SL, Wrisley DM. The influence of footwear on timed balance scores of the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:439–43.

      Objectives

      To determine if timed balance scores on the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB) were affected by shoe wear in patients with balance and vestibular disorders and to determine if there is a difference in correlation with the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) or in the sensitivity or specificity based on footwear.

      Design

      Prospective correlational trial.

      Setting

      Outpatient clinic.

      Participants

      Thirty persons (mean age, 63±17y) currently undergoing vestibular physical therapy (PT).

      Intervention

      All subjects completed the modified CTSIB with their shoes on and off at the end of a PT session; 16 of them (53%) also completed the SOT on the same day.

      Main outcome measures

      Scores on the modified CTSIB and SOT.

      Results

      No difference existed between scores on the modified CTSIB with shoes on versus off. Similar correlation was found between the modified CTSIB performed with the shoes on and off and SOT scores. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified CTSIB was similar with shoes on and off.

      Conclusions

      The modified CTSIB can be performed with or without shoes, with no difference expected in patient score or test sensitivity or specificity.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Shumway-Cook A.
        • Horak F.B.
        Assessing the influence of sensory integration on balance. Suggestions from the field.
        Phys Ther. 1986; 66: 1548-1549
        • Horak F.B.
        Clinical measurement of postural control in adults.
        Phys Ther. 1987; 67: 1881-1885
        • Cohen H.
        • Blatchly C.A.
        • Gombash L.L.
        A study of the clinical test of sensory interaction and balance.
        Phys Ther. 1993; 73 (discussion 351–4): 346-351
        • Weber P.C.
        • Cass S.P.
        Clinical assessment of postural stability.
        Am J Otol. 1993; 14: 566-569
        • El-Kashlan H.K.
        • Shepard N.T.
        • Asher A.M.
        • Smith-Wheelock M.
        • Telian S.A.
        Evaluation of clinical measures of equilibrium.
        Laryngoscope. 1998; 108: 311-319
        • Allison L.
        Balance disorders.
        in: Umphred D.A. Neurological rehabilitation. Mosby Year Book, St. Louis1995: 802-837
        • Anacker S.L.
        • Di Fabio R.P.
        Influence of sensory inputs on standing balance in community-dwelling elders with a recent history of falling.
        Phys Ther. 1992; 72: 575-584
        • Gunter K.B.
        • White K.N.
        • Hayes W.C.
        • Snow C.M.
        Functional mobility discriminates nonfallers from one-time and frequent fallers.
        J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000; 55: M672-M676
        • Baloh R.W.
        • Spain S.
        • Socotch T.M.
        • Jacobson K.M.
        • Bell T.
        Posturography and balance problems in older people.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995; 43: 638-644
        • Gill J.
        • Allum J.H.
        • Carpenter M.G.
        • et al.
        Trunk sway measures of postural stability during clinical balance tests.
        J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56: M438-M447
        • Lord S.R.
        • Murray S.M.
        • Chapman K.
        • Munro B.
        • Tiedemann A.
        Sit-to-stand performance depends on sensation, speed, balance, and psychological status in addition to strength in older people.
        J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002; 57: M539-M543
        • Di Fabio R.P.
        • Badke M.B.
        Relationship of sensory organization to balance function in patients with hemiplegia.
        Phys Ther. 1990; 70: 542-548
        • Sherrington C.
        • Lord S.R.
        Increased prevalence of fall risk factors in older people following hip fracture.
        Gerontology. 1998; 44: 340-344
        • Bergin P.S.
        • Bronstein A.M.
        • Murray N.M.
        • Sancovic S.
        • Zeppenfeld D.K.
        Body sway and vibration perception thresholds in normal aging and in patients with polyneuropathy.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995; 58: 335-340
        • Dickstein R.
        • Shupert C.L.
        • Horak F.B.
        Fingertip touch improves postural stability in patients with peripheral neuropathy.
        Gait Posture. 2001; 14: 238-247
        • Miller W.C.
        • Speechley M.
        • Barry Deathe A.
        Balance confidence among people with lower-limb amputations.
        Phys Ther. 2002; 82: 856-865
        • Enbom H.
        • Magnusson M.
        • Pyykko I.
        Postural compensation in children with congenital or early acquired bilateral vestibular loss.
        Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1991; 100: 472-478
        • Richardson P.K.
        • Atwater S.W.
        • Crowe T.K.
        • Deitz J.C.
        Performance of preschoolers on the Pediatric Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance.
        Am J Occup Ther. 1992; 46: 793-800
        • Crowe T.K.
        • Dietz J.C.
        • Richardson P.K.
        • Atwater S.W.
        Interrater reliability of the pediatric clinical test of sensory interaction for balance.
        Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 1990; 10: 1-27
        • Lord S.R.
        • Bashford G.M.
        Shoe characteristics and balance in older women.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996; 44: 429-433
        • Brecht J.S.
        • Chang M.W.
        • Price R.
        • Lehmann J.
        Decreased balance performance in cowboy boots compared with tennis shoes.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1995; 76: 940-946
        • Briggs R.C.
        • Gossman M.R.
        • Birch R.
        • Drews J.E.
        • Shaddeau S.A.
        Balance performance among noninstitutionalized elderly women.
        Phys Ther. 1989; 69: 748-756
        • Arnadottir S.A.
        • Mercer V.S.
        Effects of footwear on measurements of balance and gait in women between the ages of 65 and 93 years.
        Phys Ther. 2000; 80: 17-27
        • Robbins S.
        • Gouw G.J.
        • McClaran J.
        Shoe sole thickness and hardness influence balance in older men.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992; 40: 1089-1094
        • Robbins S.
        • Waked E.
        • Gouw G.J.
        • McClaran J.
        Athletic footwear affects balance in men.
        Br J Sports Med. 1994; 28: 117-122
        • Oeffinger D.
        • Brauch B.
        • Cranfill S.
        • et al.
        Comparison of gait with and without shoes in children.
        Gait Posture. 1999; 9: 95-100
        • Epley J.M.
        The canalith repositioning procedure.
        Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992; 107: 399-404
        • Jacobson G.P.
        • Newman C.W.
        The development of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory.
        Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990; 116: 424-427
        • Powell L.E.
        • Myers A.M.
        The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale.
        J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995; 50: M28-M34
        • Podsiadlo D.
        • Richardson S.
        The timed “Up & Go”.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991; 39: 142-148
        • Nashner L.M.
        • Peters J.F.
        Dynamic posturography in the diagnosis and management of dizziness and balance disorders.
        Neurol Clin. 1990; 8: 331-349
        • Shumway-Cook A.
        • Woollacott M.
        Motor control.
        Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore1995
        • Shumway-Cook A.
        • Baldwin M.
        • Polissar N.L.
        • Gruber W.
        Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults.
        Phys Ther. 1997; 77: 812-819
        • Shepard N.T.
        • Telian S.A.
        Programmatic vestibular rehabilitation.
        Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995; 112: 173-182
        • Portney L.G.
        • Watkins M.P.
        Foundations of clinical research.
        Appleton & Lange, East Norwalk1993
        • Whitney S.L.
        • Hudak M.T.
        • Marchetti G.F.
        The activities-specific balance confidence scale and the dizziness handicap inventory.
        J Vestib Res. 1999; 9: 253-259
        • Wrisley D.M.
        • Whitney S.L.
        • Furman J.M.
        Vestibular rehabilitation outcomes in patients with a history of migraine.
        Otol Neurotol. 2002; 23: 483-487
        • Myers A.M.
        • Fletcher P.C.
        • Myers A.H.
        Discriminative and evaluative properties of the activities-specific balance confidence scale.
        J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1998; 53: M287-M294
        • Whitney S.L.
        • Hudak M.T.
        • Marchetti G.F.
        The dynamic gait index relates to self-reported fall history in individuals with vestibular dysfunction.
        J Vestib Res. 2000; 10: 99-105
        • Schade A.I.
        • Whitney S.L.
        • Marchetti G.F.
        The relationship between posturography and falls in persons with vestibular disorders.
        J Vestib Res. 2002; 11 ([abstract]): 290