Kristjansson E, Hardardottir L, Asmundardottir M, Gudmundsson K. A new clinical test for cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility: “The Fly.” Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:490–5.
To investigate the reliability and discriminative ability of a new test designed to detect accuracy of neck movements.
University musculoskeletal research clinic in Iceland.
Twenty women (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 30.8±9.1y; range, 18–49y) with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) grades I and II (duration, 6mo–6y), with current pain score on a visual analog scale of 46.8±21.8, and a disability score on the Northwick Park Neck Pain Disability Index of 45%±14%. Twenty asymptomatic women (mean age ± SD, 29.3±8.6y; range, 18–48y) with no history of whiplash or insidious onset neck pain served as controls.
A slowly moving object appeared on a computer screen and traced an unpredictable movement path that the subjects were required to follow by moving their heads. Three randomly ordered movement patterns were tested.
Main outcome measure
A new software program connected to a 3Space Fastrak system was used to measure the mean absolute error (in millimeters) of 3 trials in each movement pattern.
The mean differences (±2 SD) between days 1 and 2 were .01±.64mm for the asymptomatic group and .33±1.80mm for the WAD group. The between-day intraclass correlation coefficients were between .60 and .77 for the asymptomatic group and .79 and .86 for the WAD group. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between groups (P=.02). The Tukey post hoc test showed significant between-group differences for each movement pattern (P≤.05). In each successive trial, a slight improvement for the asymptomatic group and a slight worsening for the WAD group were detected.
Better reliability was detected for the asymptomatic group than for the WAD group. The test could discriminate between the asymptomatic group versus the chronic WAD group.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Upon the orientation of points in space by the muscular, arthrodial, and tactile senses of the upper limbs in normal individuals and in blind persons.Brain. 1906; 29: 1-27
- Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in patients with cervical pain.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1991; 72: 288-291
- Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in patients with whiplash injury.Scand J Rehabil Med. 1996; 28: 133-138
- Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in patients with chronic nontraumatic cervical spine pain.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001; 82: 911-919
- Ability to reproduce head position after whiplash injury.Spine. 1997; 22: 865-868
- Cervicocephalic kinesthesia.Physiother Res Int. 2001; 6: 224-235
- Does the nervous system depend on kinesthetic information to control natural limb movements.Behav Brain Sci. 1992; 15: 614-632
- Does the nervous system use equilibrium-point control to guide single and multiple joints movements.Behav Brain Sci. 1992; 15: 603-613
- Control of single-joint movements in deafferented patients.Exp Brain Res. 1996; 109: 473-482
- Motor control. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2001
- Prochazka A. Muscular sense is attenuated when humans move.J Physiol (Lond). 1998; 508: 635-643
- A hierarchical foundation for models of sensorimotor control.Exp Brain Res. 1999; 126: 1-18
- Interaction of vestibular, somatosensory and visual signals for postural control and motion perception under terrestrial and microgravity conditions—a conceptual model.Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998; 28: 118-135
- The coordination and regulation of movement. Pergamon Pr, London1967
- Position sense following injury.J Sports Med. 1981; 21: 23-27
- The role of proprioception in the management and rehabilitation of athletic injuries.Am J Sports Med. 1997; 25: 130-137
- Der kraniozervikale Übergang.in: Hülse M. Neuhuber W.L. Wolf H.D. Der kranio-zer vikale Übergang. Springer, Berlin1998: 11-32
- The muscles and joints of the neck.Prog Neurobiol. 1991; 37: 165-178
- The neck and human balance [PhD dissertation]. Lund Univ Hospital, Lund (Sweden)1995
- Disturbed eye movements after whiplash due to injuries to the postural control system.J Clin Exp Neurophysiol. 1996; 18: 178-186
- Relation between neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings in patients with late whiplash syndrome.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999; 66: 485-489
- Scientific monograph of the Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders.Spine. 1995; 20: 1-40
- The Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire, devised to measure neck pain and disability.Br J Rheumatol. 1994; 33: 469-474
- Regional assessment of joint position sense in the spine.Spine. 1998; 23: 590-597
- Toward a clinical test of lumbar spine kinaesthesia.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1996; 24: 354-358
- New method for non-invasive three-dimensional measurements of human back movement.Clin Biomech. 1989; 4: 73-79
- Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement.Lancet. 1986; 1: 307-310
- Intraclass correlations.Psychol Bull. 1979; 86: 420-428
- Unreliable inferences from reliable measurements.Aust J Physiother. 1998; 44: 5-10
- The interactive contribution of neck muscle proprioception and vestibular stimulation to subjective “straight ahead” orientation in man.Exp Brain Res. 1994; 101: 140-146
- The role of the canal-neck interaction for perception of horizontal trunk and head rotation.Exp Brain Res. 1983; 49: 198-208
- Controlled automobile rear-end collisions, an investigation of related engineering and medical phenomena.Can Serv Med J. 1955; 11: 727-759
- An overview of the clinical use of dynamic posturography in the differential diagnosis of balance disorders.J Vestib Res. 1999; 9: 223-252
☆No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit upon the author(s) or upon any organization with which the author(s) is/are associated.
© 2004 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.