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Evaluating a Spinal Cord Injury–Specific Model of Depression and Quality of Life

Published:November 21, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2013.10.029

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To determine whether demographic, injury, health, and functional factors similarly have the same predictive relation with both somatic and nonsomatic symptoms of depression, as well as whether somatic and nonsomatic symptoms of depression have the same association with quality of life (QOL).

      Design

      Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data.

      Setting

      Community

      Participants

      Patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (N=4976) who completed an interview at 1 year postinjury between 2006 and 2011.

      Interventions

      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Somatic and nonsomatic symptoms of depression from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and QOL measured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale.

      Results

      Structural equation modeling showed that the hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data, but modification of the model led to a significant improvement in model fit: Δχ2(1)=226.21, P<.001; comparative fit index=.976; χ2(199)=585.39, P<.001; root mean square error of approximation=.027 (90% confidence interval, .025–.030). The health-related factors including pain severity, pain interference, and health status were similarly associated with both somatic and nonsomatic symptoms of depression. QOL was negatively associated with nonsomatic symptoms of depression but was unrelated to somatic symptoms of depression.

      Conclusions

      Assessment of depression after spinal cord injury should include a careful assessment of health concerns given the relation between health-related factors and both somatic and nonsomatic symptoms of depression. Treatments of depressive symptoms may be improved by targeting health concerns, such as pain, along with a specific focus on nonsomatic symptoms to improve the QOL.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      CFI (comparative fit index), CHART (Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique), PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), QOL (quality of life), RMSEA (root mean square error of approximation), SCI (spinal cord injury), SCIMS (Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems)
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