High voltage electrical stimulation in the augmentation of muscle strength: Effects of pulse frequency

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      This study was designed to determine the effects of pulse frequency (20pps, 45pps, 80pps) on subjects' voltage tolerance, delayed muscle soreness, and muscle strength gained following 6 weeks of electrical stimulation. Thirty healthy men (mean age = 22 years) were randomly assigned to three groups. Subjects in group 1 ( n = 10), group 2 ( n = 10), and group 3 ( n = 10) had their right quadriceps femoris muscles electrically stimulated with a high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulator preset at pulse frequencies of 20pps, 45pps, and 80pps, respectively. The left limb of each subject served as the control. For all the groups, the duty cycle of the stimulator was set at 10 seconds on and 50 seconds off during the stimulation. At each training session, the maximal tolerable voltage for each subject was monitored. Ten maximum contractions was allowed at each training session. Muscle soreness perception was evaluated 48 hours after stimulation using a 10-point visual analog scale. Electrical stimulation was administered three times a week for 6 weeks. For each subject, the average voltage output and muscle soreness rating were computed at the end of each week. With a cable tensiometer, the knee extension isometric force of both limbs was evaluated before training and at the end of the second, fourth, and sixth weeks of the study and 3 weeks after training. Repeated measure's analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences in the dependent variables. The results showed that the maximum voltage tolerance, muscle soreness ratings, and muscle strength gained by the three groups are not significantly ( p > .05) different. The right and left knee extension isometric force increased ( p < .05) by 24% and 10%, respectively, at the end of the sixth week of training. The gain in muscle strength was still sustained 3 weeks after training. The findings revealed that the stimulator used in this study can improve the strength of normal innervated muscles, but none of the three pulse frequencies selected offered any clinical advantage.

      References

        • Kramer JR
        • Mendryk SW
        Electrical stimulation as a strength improvement technique: a review.
        J Ortho Sports Phys Ther. 1982; 4: 91-98
        • Currier DP
        • Mann R
        Muscular strength development by electrical stimulation in healthy individuals.
        Phys Ther. 1983; 63: 915-921
        • McMiken DF
        • Todd-Smith M
        • Thompson C
        Strengthening of human quadriceps muscles by cutaneous electrical stimulation.
        Scand Rehab Med. 1983; 15: 25-26
        • Godfrey CM
        • Jayawardena H
        • Quance TA
        • Welsh P
        Comparison of electrostimulation and isometric exercises in strengthening the quadriceps muscle.
        Physiotherapy Canada. 1979; 31: 265-267
        • Halbach JW
        • Straus D
        Comparison of electromyostimulation to isokinetic training in increasing power of the knee extensor mechanism.
        J Orthop Sports Phy Ther. 1980; 2: 20-24
        • Ericksson E
        • Haggmack T
        • Kesshing KH
        • et al.
        Effect of electrical stimulation on human skeletal muscle.
        Int J Sports Med. 1981; 2: 18-24
        • Romero JA
        • Sanford TL
        • Schroeder RV
        • et al.
        The effects of electrical stimulation on normal quadriceps strength and girth.
        Med Sci Sports. 1982; 14: 194-199
        • Kramer JF
        • Semple JE
        Comparison of selected strengthening techniques for normal quadriceps.
        Physiotherapy Canada. 1983; 35: 300-302
        • Lainey CG
        • Walmsley RP
        • Andrew GM
        Effectiveness of exercise alone versus exercise plus electrical stimulation in strengthening the quadriceps muscle.
        Physiotherapy Canada. 1983; 35: 5-7
        • Laughman KR
        • Youdas JW
        • Garret TR
        • Chao EYS
        Strength changes in the normal quadriceps femoris muscle as a result of electrical stimulation.
        Phy Ther. 1983; 63: 494-496
        • Boutelle D
        • Smith B
        • Smith B
        • Malone T
        A strength study utilizing the ElectroStim 180.
        J Ortho Sports Phys Ther. 1985; 6: 50-53
        • Selkowitz DM
        Improvement in isometric strength of the quadriceps-femoris muscle after training with electrical stimulation.
        Phy Ther. 1985; 65: 186-188
        • Soo C
        • Currier DP
        • Threlkeld AJ
        Augmenting voluntary torque of healthy muscle by optimisation of electrical stimulation.
        Phys Ther. 1988; 68: 335-339
        • Kubiak RJ
        • Whitma KM
        • Johnson RM
        Changes in quadriceps femoris muscle strength using isometric exercise versus electricalstimulation.
        J Ortho Sports Phys Ther. 1987; 8: 537-539
        • Delitto A
        • Rose SJ
        • MacKowen MJ
        • Lehman RC
        • Thomas JA
        • Shively RA
        Electrical stimulation versus voluntary exercise in strengthening high musculature after anterior cruciate ligament surgery.
        Phys Ther. 1988; 68: 660-662
        • Massey BH
        • Nelson RC
        • Sharkey BC
        • et al.
        Effects of high frequency electrical stimulation on the size and strength of skeletal muscle.
        J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1965; 5: 136-144
        • Nowakowski A
        Influence of experimental training by electrical current stimulation on skeletal muscles.
        Acta Physiol. 1962; 13: 32-38
        • Mohr T
        • Carlson B
        • Sulentic C
        • Landry R
        Comparison of isometric exercise and high voltage galvanic stimulation on quardriceps femoris muscle strength.
        Phys Ther. 1985; 65: 606-612
        • Protas EJ
        • Dupuy T
        • Gardea R
        Electrical stimulation for strength training.
        Phys Ther. 1984; 64: 751-756
        • Curwin S
        • Stanish WD
        • Valiant G
        Clinical applications and biomechemical effects of high frequency electrical stimulation.
        Can Athl Therap Assoc J. 1980; 7: 15-16
        • Alon G
        • DeDomenica G
        High voltage stimulation: an integrated approach to clinical electrotherapy.
        Chattanooga Corporation, Chattanooga1987
        • Alon G
        • Allin J
        • Inbar GF
        Optimization of pulse duration and pulse charge during transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
        Aust J Physiother. 1983; 291: 195-201
        • Notterman SLH
        Measurement of the pain threshold determined by electrical stimulation and its clinical application: Part I. method and factors possibly influencing the pain threshold.
        Neurol. 1966; 16: 1071-1086
        • Balogun JA
        Opinions and comments: electrical stimulation for strengthening.
        Phys Ther. 1985; 65: 1394-1397
        • Forster A
        • Palastanga N
        Clayton's electrotherapy: theory and practice.
        9th ed. Bailliere, Tindall, London1985
        • Jones DA
        • Bigland-Ritchie B
        • Edwards RHT
        Excitation frequency and muscle fatigue: mechanical responses during voluntary and stimulated contractions.
        Exp Neurol. 1979; 64: 401-413
        • Binder-Macleod SA
        • McDermond LR
        Changes in the force-frequency relationship of the human quadriceps femoris muscle following electrically and voluntarily induced fatigue.
        Phys Ther. 1991; 72: 95-104
        • Currier DP
        • Mann R
        Pain complaint: comparison of electrical stimulation with convectional isometric exercise.
        J Ortho Sports Phys Ther. 1984; 5: 318-323
        • Balogun JA
        Pain complaint and muscle soreness associated with high-voltage electrical stimulation: effect of ramp time.
        Percep Motor Skills. 1986; 62: 799-810
        • Balogun JA
        • Onigbinde AT
        Hand and leg dominance: do they really affect limb muscle strength?.
        Physiother Theory Practice. 1992; 8: 89-96
        • Balogun JA
        • Adesinasi CO
        • Marzouk DK
        The effects of a wobble board exercise training program on static balance performance and strength of lower extremity muscles.
        Physiotherapy Canada. 1992; 44: 23-29
        • Richard G
        • Currier DP
        Back stabilization during knee strengthening exercise.
        Phys Ther. 1977; 57: 1013-1015
        • Kirk RE
        Experimental design: procedures for the behavioral sciences.
        in: ed 2. Brooks/Cole, Monterey, CA1982: 90-133
        • Bigland-Ritchie B
        EMG/force relations and fatigue of human voluntary contractions.
        in: Exercise and sports science reviews. 9. Franklin Institute, Philadelphia1982: 75-117
        • Delitto A
        • Snyder-Mackler L
        Two theories of muscle strength augmentation using percutaneous electrical stimulation.
        Phys Ther. 1990; 70: 158-163
        • Belanger AY
        Neuromuscular electrostimulation in physiotherapy: a critical appraisal of controversial issues.
        Physiothera Theory Practice. 1990; 6: 83-89
        • Shaver LG
        Essentials of exercise physiology.
        in: Burgess, Minneapolis, MN1981: 128-129
        • Shaver LG
        Essentials of exercise physiology. Burgess, Minneapolis, MN1981: 8-13
        • Shaver LG
        Essentials of exercise physiology. Burgess, Minneapolis, MN1981: 257-264
        • Muller EA
        Influence of training and of inactivity on muscle strength.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1970; 8: 449-456
        • Hasson S
        • Wible C
        • Reich M
        • Barnes W
        • Williams J
        Dexamethasone iontophoresis: effect on delayed muscle soreness and muscle function.
        Can J Sports Sci. 1992; 17: 8-13